Yak and horse hair have been used in Far Eastern, but rarely in Middle Eastern rugs. Yarns are characterized as S-twist or Z-twist according to the direction of spinning see diagram.
Some colours, especially dark brown, require iron mordants, which can damage or fade the fabric. The spring shear produces wool of finer quality. Rudenko, the discoverer of the Pazyryk carpet. It seems likely that knotted-pile carpets have been produced by people who were already familiar with extra-weft wrapping techniques.
It has survived in a Tibetan monastery and was removed by monks fleeing to Nepal during the Chinese cultural revolution. This often results in faster pile wear in areas dyed in dark brown colours, and may create a relief effect in antique oriental carpets.
A field with repeating patterns, framed by a main border in elaborate design, and several secondary borders. Dyeing[ edit ] Naturally dyed wool in a Turkish carpet manufacture The dyeing process involves the preparation of the yarn in order to make it susceptible for the proper dyes by immersion in a mordant.
The direction in which the yarn is spun is called twist. Dyestuffs are then added to the yarn which remains in the dyeing solution for a defined time. Nomads who cannot afford to buy cotton on the market use wool for warps and wefts, which are also traditionally made of wool in areas where cotton was not a local product.
The colours blue, red, green, to a lesser extent also white, brown, yellow are subdued, frequently two shades of the same colour are opposed to each other. A number of knives was found in the graves of women of a settled community in southwest Turkestan.
Every three to five rows, pieces of unspun wool, strips of cloth and leather are woven in. It was discovered in the late s by the Russian archeologist Sergei Rudenko and his team.
Eight fragments were found in by F. Its characteristics and quality vary from each area to the next, depending on the breed of sheep, climatic conditions, pasturage, and the particular customs relating to when and how the wool is shorn and processed.
Similar patterns are arranged in diagonal rows: Cotton can be spun more tightly than wool, and tolerates more tension, which makes cotton a superior material for the foundation of a rug. Especially larger carpets are more likely to lie flat on the floor, whereas wool tends to shrink unevenly, and carpets with a woolen foundation may buckle when wet.
Among these fragments, some show depictings of animals, like various stags sometimes arranged in a procession, recalling the design of the Pazyryk carpet or a winged mythical creature.
Rug fragments were also found in the Lop Nur area, and are woven in symmetrical knots, with interwoven wefts after each row of knots, with a striped design, and various colours. Generally, handspun single plies are spun with a Z-twist, and plying is done with an S-twist.
Usually the pile threads are dyed with various natural or synthetic dyes. Silk pile can be used to highlight special elements of the design in Turkmen rugsbut more expensive carpets from Kashan, Qum, Nain, and Isfahan in Persia, and Istanbul and Hereke in Turkey, have all-silk piles.
Its tensile strength has been used in silk warps, but silk also appears in the carpet pile. Usually, sheep are shorn in spring and fall. Vegetal dyes[ edit ] Traditional dyes used for oriental rugs are obtained from plants and insects. Seljuq Period, 13th century. They show a fine weave of about asymmetrical knots per square decimeter  Other fragments woven in symmetrical as well as asymmetrical knots have been found in Dura-Europos in Syria and from the At-Tar caves in Iraq dated to the first centuries AD.
Mainly, animal wool from sheep and goats is used, occasionally also from camels. The dyed yarn is then left to dry, exposed to air and sunlight.
Silk pile is less resistant to mechanical stress, thus, all-silk piles are often used as wall hangings, or pillow tapestry. The pile consists of hand-spun or machine-spun strings of yarn, which are knotted into the warp and weft foundation. Nearly all carpet fragments show different patterns and ornaments.
It is often dyed in black, or used in its natural colour. Materials[ edit ] Materials used in carpet weaving and the way they are combined vary in different rug weaving areas.
A variety of other synthetic dyes were invented thereafter. The rod is then either removed, leaving the loops closed, or the loops are cut over the protecting rod, resulting in a rug very similar to a genuine pile rug.
Goat hair is mainly used for fastening the borders, or selvages, of Baluchi and Turkmen rugssince it is more resistant to abrasion.
Already the earliest known written sources refer to carpets as gifts given to, or required from, high-ranking persons. With the exception of Mamluk carpets, nearly all the rugs produced in the countries of the rug belt use "Z" anti-clockwise spun and "S" clockwise -plied wool.
Loop weaving is done by pulling the weft strings over a gauge rod, creating loops of thread facing the weaver.Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for.
A collection of more than definitions of organized crime from academic, official and other sources from various historical periods and various countries worldwide as well as from supranational institutions provides answers to the question 'What is organized crime?' and highlights the diversity of meanings attached to the term organized crime.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. An oriental rug is a heavy textile, made for a wide variety of utilitarian and symbolic purpose, produced in “Oriental countries” for home use, local sale, and export.
Oriental carpets can be pile woven or flat woven without pile, using various materials such as silk, wool, and cotton. Examples range in size from pillow to large, room-sized carpets, and.
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