On the other hand, a person from the same culture may view family obligations as a way to feel needed, useful and competent. These adverse effects are weaker, though, in lower-income countries. These, in turn, make them more likely to be detected by the physician. Another set of surveys examined comparative decrements in perceived health associated with a wide range of disorders 377 The impairment scores Cross cultural depression the difference in mean impairment scores of respondents with month MDE compared to those with no lifetime history of MDE in the survey.
Employment status Although depression is known to be associated with unemployment, most research on this association has emphasized the impact of job loss on depression rather than depression as a risk factor for job loss Bagby and his team also wanted to examine the role stigma and alexithymia difficulty using words to describe emotions play in how each culture presented and expressed depression symptoms.
Cross cultural depression considerable overlap, which agrees with other studies and clinical evidence that patients in primary care tend to have a general spectrum of anxiety and depressive symptoms 31 Cross cultural depression, diminishes the validity of a meaningful distinction between these two constructs.
Cultural factors may play a role in the acceptability of certain interventions, in particular psychological interventions in non-industrialised countries Culture and management of depression Pathways to care In all parts of the world, the vast majority of depressed patients seen by biomedical health care professionals are in general or primary health care settings.
Even within the United States, prevalence rates the numbers of people experiencing depression can be influenced by cultural context. There is now a general consensus that the integration of the universalist and culturally relativist approaches, and their methodologies, is required to generate a truly international psychiatric epidemiology.
MDE was included in a number of these studies and the results typically showed that musculoskeletal disorders and MDE were associated Cross cultural depression the highest levels of disability at the individual level among all commonly occurring disorders assessed.
Thus, typical psychological symptoms such as loss of interest in daily or social activities, suicidal thoughts, poor concentration and anxiety or worry can are experienced by the majority of patients. Thus, while the experience of dysphoric mood may be a universal human phenomenon, the concept of depressive disorder which focuses on the mood change as the primary or core feature of the disorder has evolved from within a Western culture and may not be universally applicable This problem is not just a semantic one and may account, in part, for the low recognition rates of depression see below.
The WMH investigators recently examined this issue by creating a small data file in which each WMH survey was treated as a separate observation and the variables were the measures of prevalence reported in Table 1 and a measure of impairment associated with MDE reported in the surveys Also, these participants reported higher levels of stigma and alexithymia.
For example, many depressed Chinese people complain of bodily discomfort, feelings of inner pressure, and symptoms of pain, dizziness, and fatigue. There are a number of potential factors which may make women more vulnerable to suffer depression. Many times, personal happiness is sacrificed for the stability of the group at large in such cultures.
There is also evidence, from prospective longitudinal studies, that economic deprivation is associated with persistence and incidence of depression The high prevalence of depression is of concern for many reasons. Although only an incomplete understanding exists of pathways, both laboratory and naturalistic studies of parent-infant micro-interactions have documented subtle ways in which parent depression leads to maladaptive interactions that impede infant affect regulation and later child development Previous studies of the effects of mental disorders on reductions in income have not controlled for these reciprocal effects, making the size of the adverse effects of depression on income-earnings uncertain.
One way to sort out this temporal order would be to take advantage of the fact that depression often starts in childhood or adolescence and use prospective epidemiological data to study long-term associations between early-onset disorders and subsequent income-earnings.
Comparable results were obtained when analyses focused exclusively on sub-samples of cases in treatment and when comparisons were restricted to respondents who had both disorders in a given pair e.
The first care provider sought for the illness was most often a biomedical carer. Role performance A great deal of research has been carried out on the associations of mental disorders with various aspects of role performance, with a special focus on marital quality, work performance, and financial success.
Among the screening questionnaires, both locally developed measures and local versions of foreign measures have been used.
In the face of this reality, one of the key rationales behind cross-cultural psychiatry is becoming rapidly redundant.
Methodological studies reviewed here find no evidence that the substantial cross-national variation in prevalence estimates reviewed here, with the highest prevalence estimates found in some of the wealthiest countries in the world, is due as methodological factors, adding indirect support to a substantive interpretation of observed cross-national differences in MDE prevalence estimates.
These associations are found throughout the age range of children, but most pronounced for the parents of young children. This finding raised the possibility that the severity threshold for reporting depression in epidemiological surveys might vary across countries.
However, there is little evidence of this kind available today The sociology of depression encompasses the cultural context in which people live, as well as the social stressors that people encounter as a part of life.
Recognition and treatment Primary care physicians recognize up to a third of psychological morbidity; this rate has been reported to be highly variable across centres being influenced by a number of factors such as the training of doctors 2230 The vast majority of international studies of depression have focused on sociodemographic and life-event risk factors for depression.
This difference was statistically significant in 15 of the 18 countries, and even in the three exceptions Belgium, Germany, and Shenzhenwomen had higher rates than men.
These theories formed the basis of a series of ethnographic and epidemiological studies on depression in two, apparently culturally different, developing societies Zimbabwe and India. It is hoped that future epidemiological research sheds light on these perspectives. Longitudinal data collection would be required to document such a difference rigorously 97Epidemiological data are reviewed on the prevalence, course, socio-demographic correlates, and societal costs of major depression throughout the world.
Major depression is estimated in these surveys to be a commonly-occurring disorder. Also, it is the Cross cultural depression study to use three assessment tools (spontaneous report of problems during unstructured discussion with doctor; clinician-rated symptoms in a structured clinical interview; and a symptom rating scale in questionnaire form) translated into both English and Chinese (Mandarin) and modified to address cross-cultural differences.
Online Assessment Measures. For further clinical evaluation and research, the APA is offering a number of “emerging measures” in Section III of DSM–5. These patient assessment measures were developed to be administered at the initial patient interview and to monitor treatment progress, thus serving to advance the use of initial.
Cross-Cultural Studies of Depression Janis H. Jenkins Case Western Reserve University Arthur Kleinman Byron J. Good Harvard Medical School CROSS-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF DEPRESSION: INTRODUCTION In this chapter we examine key questions that arise from a cross-cultural ap proach to the study of depression.
Kirmayer L: Beyond the "New Cross-cultural Psychiatry": Cultural Biology, Discursive Psychology and the Ironies of Globalization.
Transcultural Psychiatry.43 (1): / View Article PubMed Google Scholar; Kleinman A, Good B: Culture and Depression. depression from verbal biomarkers in a cross-cultural context.
We use three different depression datasets from different coun- tries and languages, where we attempt to control for their differ.Download